Deep Learning

An MIT Press book

Ian Goodfellow, Yoshua Bengio and Aaron Courville

Exercises   Lecture Slides  

The Deep Learning textbook is a resource intended to help students and practitioners enter the field of machine learning in general and deep learning in particular. The online version of the book is now complete and will remain available online for free. The print version will be available for sale soon. For up to date announcements, join our mailing list.

Citing the book

To cite this book, please use this bibtex entry:
    title={Deep Learning},
    author={Ian Goodfellow, Yoshua Bengio, and Aaron Courville},
    note={Book in preparation for MIT Press},


If you notice any typos (besides the known issues listed below) or have suggestions for exercises to add to the website, do not hesitate to contact any of the authors directly by e-mail: Ian (<lastname.firstname>, Yoshua (<firstname>.<lastname>, Aaron (<firstname>.<lastname> The book itself is now complete and we are not currently making revisions beyond correcting any minor errors that remain.

Known issues: The website currently does not display some symbols correctly, due to the conversion from PDF to HTML. Pending approval from MIT Press, we will change the format used for the website. Currently, the known issues are that in outdated versions of the Edge browser, the "does not equal" sign sometimes appears as the "equals" sign. This may be resolved by updating to the latest version. Also, some parentheses do not appear in any browser. For example, Eq. 5.29, 5.33, and 5.34 are missing parentheses in the HTML. There is currently no workaround for this issue other than to wait for us to receive approval to use another format.

  • Bibliography
  • Index